TGFβ regulates expression of Foxc1 and Pitx2. Western-blot analyses of cultured cells were performed using the antibodies shown. (a) Rat embryonic fibroblasts were treated with TGFβ, which results in increased levels of phosphorylated pSmad2. Furthermore, TGFβ signaling enhances expression of Foxc1 and induces Pitx2 expression, as revealed by western-blot analysis. (b) In ex vivo short-term tissue culture of E11 mouse eyes, including periocular mesenchyme, TGFβ strongly upregulates both Foxc1 and Pitx2 expression.
Ittner et al. Journal of Biology 2005 4:11 doi:10.1186/jbiol29