Integration of proteome and metabolic control to show regulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolic fluxes at the protein (enzyme) level. Shown here are the coupling of carbon and nitrogen fluxes at the level of glutamate dehydrogenase (Gdh1p, Gdh2p) and glutamine synthetase (Gln1p), the regulation of arginine biosynthesis at the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (Cpa1p, Cpa2p) level and amino-acid biosynthesis, and amino-acid sensing by TOR. Selected proteins with levels consistently upregulated (red) with growth independently of culture conditions are shown. Enzymes responsible for the cytosolic 2-oxoglutarate pool: Aco1p and Aco2p, aconitase and putative aconitase isoenzyme; Odc1p and Odc2p, mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate transporters; Idp2p, NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase. Enzyme subunits coupling the oxidation of succinate to the transfer of electrons to ubiquinone: Sdh1p and Sdh2p, succinate dehydrogenase, flavoprotein, and iron-sulfur protein subunits, respectively. Metabolic diagram from [42, 91, 92] and drawn using Cell Designer  and Adobe Illustrator .
Castrillo et al. Journal of Biology 2007 6:4 doi:10.1186/jbiol54