Integration of proteome and metabolic control to show regulation of sulfur and C1 (folate) metabolic fluxes at the protein (enzyme) level. Selected proteins with levels consistently upregulated (red) or downregulated (green) with growth independently of culture conditions are shown. Sulfur, C1 metabolism, methyl cycle, methionine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) fluxes towards methylation of proteins, rRNAs and tRNAs, and protein biosynthesis are shown here. Metabolic pathways and enzymes are from [42,82, 103-105] and the diagram is drawn with Cell Designer  and Adobe Illustrator . Reverse methionine biosynthetic pathways  have been omitted for clarity. Metabolite abbreviations: THF, tetrahydrofolate; METTHF, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate; MTHPTGLUT, 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate (donor of the terminal methyl group in methionine biosynthesis); GT, glutathione; CYS, cysteine; CT, cystathionine; OAHS, O-acetylhomoserine; HCYS, homocysteine; MET, methionine; SAM, S-adenosylmethionine; SAH, S-adenosylhomocysteine; D-SAM, decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine; MTA, methylthioadenosine. Metabolic steps (genes/enzymes): Met10p, sulfite reductase alpha subunit; Ecm17p, sulfite reductase beta subunit; MET7, folylpolyglutamate synthetase (Met7p not detected; the relevance of polyglutamylation in the C1 metabolism branch was demonstrated at the transcriptional level (see text)); Met13p, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase isozyme; Met6p, methionine synthase; Mes1p, methionyl-tRNA synthetase; Sam1p, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase isozyme; Sam2p, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase isozyme. Sah1p, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase; Ado1p, adenosine kinase.
Castrillo et al. Journal of Biology 2007 6:4 doi:10.1186/jbiol54