Table 1

Gene expression changes seen in earthworms exposed to five different soil contaminants

Copper

Cadmium

Fluoranthene

Atrazine

TNT


Species

L. rubellus

L. rubellus

L. rubellus

L. rubellus

Eisenia fetida

Exposure time

70 days

28 days

28 days

28 days

28 days

Exposure concentration range (mg/kg)

10-480

13-500

14-533

19-59

2-39

Metabolic category

Detoxification

Y

Y

Y

Y

Oxidative stress

Y

Y

Y

Y

Mitochondrial electron transport

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Calcium binding and signaling

Y

Y

Y

Iron homeostasis and oxygen transport

Y

Y

Y

Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis

Y

Impaired immune function

Y

Y

Protein damage repair and catabolism

Y

Y

Y

Lipid metabolism

Y

Glycolysis and carbohydrate metabolism

Y

Cell cycle and apoptosis

Y

Y

Muscle contraction

Y

Y

DNA damage and repair

Y

Y

Neurological dysfunction

Y

References

[10]

[11]

[11]

[11]

[12,13]


Y indicates the broad metabolic categories in which significant changes in gene expression were observed in response to the indicated contaminants.

van Straalen and Roelofs Journal of Biology 2008 7:19   doi:10.1186/jbiol80