Table 1

Angiogenesis factors

Factors affecting endothelial proliferation and migration

VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factors)

Mediate vascular permeability, endothelial proliferation, migration, and survival

FGF family (fibroblast growth factors)

Have roles in neuronal signaling, inflammatory processes, hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, tumor growth, and invasion

PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor)

Induces angiogenesis, cellular proliferation and migration in synergy with transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) and EGF

EGF (epidermal growth factor)

Involved in tumor proliferation, metastasis, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and wound healing

Angiopoietins (Ang1, Ang2)

Endothelial cell adhesion, spreading, focal contact formation, and migration

Angiopoietin-related growth factors

For example, ANGPTL3, FARP, PGAR

TIE receptors (TIE1, TIE2)

Essential in embryonic angiogenesis; endothelial motility

Eph receptors and Ephrins

Promote migration, repulsion, adhesion and attachment to the extracellular matrix via integrins

HGF (hepatocyte growth factor)

Neuronal survival factor; proliferation, migration and differentiation of various cell types

TP (thymidine phosphorylase)

Induces endothelial chemotaxis

NPY (neuropeptide Y)

Endothelial cell adhesion, migration and differentiation into capillaries

Factors affecting the basement membrane and extracellular matrix

TF (tissue factor)

Upregulates VEGF on endothelial cells; starts coagulation process, leading to creation of two pro-thrombin fragments

Thrombin

Endothelial and tumor cell mitogen, increases metastasis in vivo

uPA (plasminogen activator, urokinase)

Only expressed in angiogenic endothelium; has a role in preventing excessive extracellular membrane proteolysis

tPA (tissue plasminogen activator)

Role in angiogenesis, as it is inhibited by angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin

Plasmin

Scavenges α2-antiplasmin and α2-macroglobulin

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)

Release extracellular membrane-bound growth factors

Chymases

Role in proteolysis

Heparanases

Role in proteolysis

Integrins

Role in attachment of endothelial cells to basement membrane, extracellular membrane, and other endothelial cells


Multiple different and redundant factors are involved in the complex process of angiogenesis. This table represents a sample of those factors with roles in endothelial proliferation and migration, and in the degradation of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix. Adapted from [4].

Burton and Libutti Journal of Biology 2009 8:85   doi:10.1186/jbiol189